First, using starting fluid is extremely dangerous. Just a bit too much and the engine will uncontrollably destroy itself.
What does "bled injectors" mean?
Seems like if this started immediately after changing the fuel filter and housing, that's the most likely place for the problem. Not always, but usually. So, I would recheck for any air leaks at the connections, or kinking of the (now very old?) soft fuel lines that attach there. And the fuel filter housing was replaced because?!?? For their age and if it hasn't been changed in a long time (or ever), then it's a good idea. It's also possible to get a bad new one. Does it prime/pump to where it's hard? You opened the bleeder slightly, pumped until diesel bubbled out, closed the bleeder, then pump until it got hard?
2004.5 Silverado 3500 SRW 4x4, D/A (LLY), Ext. Cab, Long Bed
engineer837 aux rad, TxC CAI, LBZ MP, Scangauge II, Nicktane aux filter head, KD lift pump, 2008 PS pump, 2011 hydroboost, Frederico Swaybars, Rancho 9000XL, Torklift StableLoads, BFG AT/KO2, Lance 835 Camper often in the bed.